The Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration was an era which began at the end of the 19th century, and ended after the First World War; the Shackleton–Rowett Expedition of 1921–22 is often cited by historians as the dividing line between the “Heroic” and “Mechanical” ages.[1][2][3] During the Heroic Age the Antarctic continent became the focus of international efforts that resulted in intensive scientific and geographical exploration, in which 17 major Antarctic expeditions were launched from ten countries.[4] The common factor in these expeditions was the limited nature of the resources available to them before advances in transport and communication technologies revolutionized the work of exploration.[1][5] This meant that each expedition became a feat of endurance that tested, and sometimes exceeded its personnel’s physical and mental limits.

Source: Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration – Wikipedia