Tim Boucher

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Knockers in the New World (Welsh mythology, mining)

Welsh miners moved to western Pennsylvania in the 1820s. As with any group that moves to a new land, they took their stories of the knockers with them. The miners told their new co-workers tales of stolen tools and helpful warnings.

Cornish miners took the legends to California. Their mining abilities were so sought after that mine owners even paid the boat fare to bring more Cornish miners to the area. Yet the new workers brought demands of their own. They wouldn’t enter new mines unless managers assured them the helpful spirits were present.

Source: Who are the mysterious Knockers of Cornish folklore?

House of Life (Ancient Egypt)

The House of Life was a place in each ancient Egyptian town of size where priests learned to read and write, the place where scribe school was held, and the place where the children of the rich and the elite went to school to learn economics, law, astronomy, geography, mathematics. As well, it was where the interpretation of dreams was taught. The House of Life was not a monastery. It was an educational center. Scholars and students at the House of Life made copies of the Book of Dead and offered these individual sheets for sale to support the center.

Source: Ancient Egypt for Kids – Education, The House of Life – Ancient Egypt for Kids

Kappa (Japanese folklore, monster)

One peculiar trait is that it has a cavity on its head called a sara (“dish”, “bowl”, or “plate”) that retains water or some sort of liquid, which is regarded as the source of the kappa’s power or life force. This cavity must be full whenever a kappa is away from the water; if it ever dries out, or if its water is spilled, kappa loses its power and may even die.[9][10][8]

Source: Kappa (folklore) – Wikipedia

BuzzFeed Unsolved – Supernatural (All Six Seasons)

Direct YouTube playlist URL.

Inner Sound Meditation (Nad Yoga)

Lie on a firm, flat surface with no pillow. Keep the legs straight and uncrossed, and the arms at your side with the palms of the hands turned upward. The body should be as relaxed as possible. It is very important to be in a quiet, dark place and best if practiced at night or in the early morning when the rest of the world is still. If noise is a problem, earplugs may be used.

With the eyes and the mouth closed (this is important), turn all your attention to the inside of your head, and begin to listen carefully. Concentrate on the right side of the head, near the inner ear. There will be a sound of some sort. Perhaps you will hear a light ringing sound, a soft buzzing sound, or something akin to a faint rumble. Listen as closely as possible to whatever sound it is that you are hearing, with absolute attention—as though you were trying to hear someone in another room who is speaking in a whisper.

As you listen, the sound you her will grow louder, and you will start to hear other sounds. In fact, so many sounds may start to swell at once that the original sound may be lost. As the sounds become louder, focus your attention on just one, as if you were trying to single out one instrument in a symphony. Concentrate intently on that one sound. It will become louder and louder, and you may in time experience the sensation of having your whole body resonate with that sound. As you listen the sound may stop and turn into something else—more refined and vibrant. Go with that, and by all means keep the attention as focused as possible.

There are many sounds you may hear; bells, flutes, falling water, the sound of the ocean, the singing of birds, and more.

Source: Nad Yoga: Sound Current Meditation | Medicine Hunter

Nadabindu Upanishad (Hindu scripture)

A yogin, at the start of his practice, concentrates in the inner side of right ear from inside and, hears many sounds proceeding from those like an ocean and clouds( It is said that this starts from sounds of crickets and other familiar sounds and at higher levels it is Sounds of flute, cymbals and Cloud thunder).[28][4] These filter out, and over time, he can hear more subtle sounds such as single note of musical instruments at his will, and get absorbed in whichever sound note it wants to, asserts the text.[29][4] This focus on sound notes help the yogi destroy distractions from other senses and fluctuations of his mind, just like a bee focussed on honey does not care about the odour that surrounds it.[22][4] Such a yogi does not care about fame or disgrace from others, he does not feel heat or cold, neither joy nor sorrow, he is lost within, in his self, in Brahman-Pranava (Om).[4][30]

Source: Nadabindu Upanishad – Wikipedia

Klepht (Greek history, Ottoman empire)

Klephts (/klɛfts/; Greek κλέφτης, kléftis, pl. κλέφτες, kléftes, which means “thief” and perhaps originally meant just “brigand”[2]) were highwaymen turned self-appointed armatoloi, anti-Ottoman insurgents, and warlike mountain-folk who lived in the countryside when Greece was a part of the Ottoman Empire.[2][3] They were the descendants of Greeks who retreated into the mountains during the 15th century in order to avoid Ottoman rule.[4] They carried on a continuous war against Ottoman rule and remained active as brigands until the 19th century.[4][5]

The terms kleptomania and kleptocracy are derived from the same Greek root, κλέπτειν (kléptein), “to steal”.[6]

Source: Klepht – Wikipedia

Sarakatsani (Greek & Bulgarian culture, history)

The most widely accepted theory for the origin of the name “Sarakatsani” is that it comes from the Turkish word karakaçan (from kara = ‘black’ and kaçan = ‘fugitive’), used by the Ottomans, in reference to those people who dressed in black and fled to the mountains during the Ottoman occupation of Greece.[6] They never accepted the fall of Constantinople. According to another theory, the name derives from the village of Sakaretsi, the supposed homeland of the Sarakatsani.[7] […]

Georgakas (1949) and Kavadias (1965) believe that the Sarakatsani are either descendants of ancient nomads who inhabited the mountain regions of Greece in the pre-classical times, or they are descended from sedentary Greek peasants forced to leave their original settlements around the 14th century who became nomadic shepherds. Angeliki Hatzimihali, a Greek folklorist who spent a lifetime among the Sarakatsani, emphasises the prototypical elements of Greek culture that she found in the pastoral way of life, social organisation and art forms of the Sarakatsani. She also points out the similarity between their decorative art and the geometric art of pre-classical Greece.[17]

Source: Sarakatsani – Wikipedia

Highland Travellers (Scottish history, culture)

As an indigenous group Highland Travellers have played an essential role in the preservation of traditional Gaelic culture.[23] Travellers’ outstanding contribution to Highland life has been as custodians of an ancient and vital singing, storytelling and folklore tradition of great importance.

Source: Scottish Gypsy and Traveller groups – Wikipedia

Types of Meter in Historic Epic Poetry

Ancient Sumerian epic poems did not use any kind of poetic meter and lines did not have consistent lengths;[13] instead, Sumerian poems derived their rhythm solely through constant repetition, with subtle variations between lines.[13] Indo-European epic poetry, by contrast, usually places strong emphasis on the importance of line consistency and poetic meter.[13] Ancient Greek and Latin poems were written in dactylic hexameter.[14] Old English, German and Norse poems were written in alliterative verse,[15] usually without rhyme. Italian, Spanish and Portuguese long poems were usually written in terza rima [16] or especially ottava rima.[17] From the 14th century English epic poems were written in heroic couplets,[18] and rhyme royal,[19] though in the 16th century the Spenserian stanza[20] and blank verse[21] were also introduced. The French alexandrine is currently the heroic line in French literature, though in earlier periods the decasyllable took precedence. In Polish literature, couplets of Polish alexandrines (syllabic lines of 7+6 syllables) prevail.[22] In Russian, iambic tetrameter verse is the most popular.[23] In Serbian poetry, the decasyllable is the only form employed.[24][25]

Source: Epic poetry – Wikipedia

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