Tim Boucher

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Gusle (Slavic instrument, epic poetry, Homer)

The gusle (Serbian Cyrillic: гусле; Bulgarian: гусла) or lahuta (Albanian: lahutë) is a single-stringed musical instrument (and musical style) traditionally used in the Dinarides region of Southeastern Europe (in the Balkans). The instrument is always accompanied by singing; musical folklore, specifically epic poetry.

The gusle player holds the instrument vertically between his knees, with the left hand fingers on the strings. The strings are never pressed to the neck, giving a harmonic and unique sound. Singing to the accompaniment of the Gusle as a part of Serbia’s intangible cultural heritage was inscribed in 2018 on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity of UNESCO.

Gusle are also indirectly important to the whole of Western civilization. The Homeric Iliad and the Odyssey are the generally considered foundational works of literature of Western civilization along with the Torah and the Christian Bible. As the verses pertain to a war and events long before the abjad script was known to the Greeks, it was proposed that Homeric hymns were sung, not written, and were passed down through generations of singing epic bards, who were, like Homer, often blind. This was finally proven as probable in the 19th century when the German classicist Heinrich Schliemann discovered the gusle tradition not far from Greece after observing a Serbian bard reciting a lengthy poem in a similar style.

Source: Gusle – Wikipedia

Brane cosmology (Particle physics)

The central idea is that the visible, three-dimensional universe is restricted to a brane inside a higher-dimensional space, called the “bulk” (also known as “hyperspace”). If the additional dimensions are compact, then the observed universe contains the extra dimension, and then no reference to the bulk is appropriate. In the bulk model, at least some of the extra dimensions are extensive (possibly infinite), and other branes may be moving through this bulk. Interactions with the bulk, and possibly with other branes, can influence our brane and thus introduce effects not seen in more standard cosmological models.

Source: Brane cosmology – Wikipedia

Hawala (Islamic finance)

The unique feature of the system is that no promissory instruments are exchanged between the hawala brokers; the transaction takes place entirely on the honour system. As the system does not depend on the legal enforceability of claims, it can operate even in the absence of a legal and juridical environment. Trust and extensive use of connections are the components that distinguish it from other remittance systems. Hawaladar networks are often based on membership in the same family, village, clan, or ethnic group, and cheating is punished by effective ex-communication and “loss of honour”—leading to severe economic hardship.[3]

Informal records are produced of individual transactions, and a running tally of the amount owed by one broker to another is kept. Settlements of debts between hawala brokers can take a variety of forms (such as goods, services, properties, transfers of employees, etc.), and need not take the form of direct cash transactions.

Source: Hawala – Wikipedia

Aeolus (Greek mythology, Odyssey)

This Aeolus lived on the floating island of Aeolia and was visited by Odysseus and his crew in the Odyssey. After their misadventure in Polyphemus’ cave, Aeolus gave them hospitality for a month and provided them a west wind to carry them home to Ithaca. He also provided a gift of an ox-hide bag containing all winds but the west. Odysseus and his crew members traveled steadily and anxiously for several days, but with his native land in sight, Odysseus sank overpowered by sleep. His men proceeded to indulge their curiosity to see the costly presents which they thought the bag contained, opened it unwittingly, and out burst the imprisoned winds with such a roar that the force drove the ship back to Aeolus’ island. Aeolus refused to provide any further help,[6] because he believed that their short and unsuccessful voyage meant that the gods did not favour them. This Aeolus was perceived by post-Homeric authors as a god, rather than as a mortal and simple Keeper of the Winds (as in the Odyssey).

Source: Aeolus (Odyssey) – Wikipedia

Obelisk In Antarctica Video (Quatria Conspiracy)

Nausinous & Nausithous (Greek Mythology, the Odyssey, Sons of Odysseus & Calypso)

In Greek mythology, Nausinous /ˌnɔːˈsɪnoʊəs/ (Greek: Ναυσίνοος, Nausinoos) was the son of Odysseus and Calypso.

While stranded on Ogygia, Odysseus was forced to become the lover of Calypso.[1] According to Hesiod, this union resulted in two sons, named Nausinous and Nausithous.[2] Neither Nausinous nor his brother are mentioned in Homer’s Odyssey.

Classical lore suggests some Greeks believed that Telemachus would later voyage to the island of Calypso and there marry his half-sister, the child of Calypso and Odysseus.

Source: Nausinous – Wikipedia

Circe (Greek mythology, Odyssey)

Circe was renowned for her vast knowledge of potions and herbs; one of her Homeric epithets is polypharmakos (“knowing many drugs or charms”).[2] Through the use of these and a magic wand or staff, she would transform her enemies, or those who offended her, into animals.

The best known of her legends is told in Homer’s Odyssey when Odysseus visits her island of Aeaea on the way back from the Trojan War and she changes most of his crew into swine. He forces her to return them to human shape, lives with her for a year and has sons by her, including Latinus and Telegonus. Her ability to change others into animals is further highlighted by the story of Picus, an Italian king whom she turns into a woodpecker for resisting her advances. Another story makes her fall in love with the sea-god Glaucus, who prefers the nymph Scylla to her. In revenge, Circe poisoned the water where her rival bathed and turned her into a dreadful monster.

Source: Circe – Wikipedia

Calypso (Greek mythology, Homer, Odyssey)

In Homer’s Odyssey, Calypso attempts to keep the fabled Greek hero Odysseus on her island to make him her immortal husband. According to Homer, Calypso kept Odysseus prisoner at Ogygia for seven years.[6] Calypso enchants Odysseus with her singing as she moves to and from, weaving on her loom with a golden shuttle. […]

The story of Odysseus and Calypso has some close resemblances to the interactions between Gilgamesh and Siduri in the Epic of Gilgamesh in that “the lone female plies the inconsolable hero-wanderer with drink and sends him off to a place beyond the sea reserved for a special class of honoured people” and “to prepare for the voyage he has to cut down and trim timbers.”[10]

Source: Calypso (mythology) – Wikipedia

When the Zalthyrmians came to Quastria

Quatrian legend says that when the Quatrians descended the Web of Matarax from the terror and turmoil of the Shape Wars, they rejoiced, stepping onto the new land out of the mists. And in their rejoicing, they burst out into song, a classic Triangulon air which made present in their minds all they had left behind and opened space in their hearts for all that might come, in the fullness of time. From far off, the Zalthyrmians are said to have heard their marvelous singing, and came to watch these new people,

Source: Zalthyrmians – Quatria – Medium

Cryptography definition

cryptography (n.) 1650s, “art of writing in secret characters,” from French cryptographie or directly from Modern Latin cryptographia, from Greek kryptos “hidden” (see crypt) + graphia (see -graphy). Related: Cryptographic; cryptographer.

Source: cryptography | Origin and meaning of cryptography by Online Etymology Dictionary

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