Tim Boucher

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Lombardic Terms In Italian Language

From the Codice diplomatico longobardo, a collection of legal documents that makes reference to many Lombardic terms, we obtain several terms still in use in the Italian language:

barba (beard), marchio (mark), maniscalco (blacksmith), aia (courtyard), braida (suburban meadow), borgo (burg, village), fara (fundamental unity of Lombard social and military organization, presently used as toponym), pizzo (peak, mountain top, now used as toponym), sala (hall, room, also used as toponym), staffa (stirrup), stalla (stable), sculdascio, faida (feud), manigoldo (scoundrel), sgherro (henchman); fanone (baleen), stamberga (hovel); anca (hip), guancia (cheek), nocca (knuckle), schiena (back); gazza (magpie), martora (marten); gualdo (wood, presently used as toponym), pozza (pool); verbs like bussare (to knock), piluccare (to peck), russare (to snore).

Source: Lombards – Wikipedia

Hôtel de Bourgogne (French theatre)

In 1402 the Confrérie had received a monopoly on the performance of religious mystery plays. Rival companies arose presenting satire and other types of comedy, and finding that these groups were attracting larger audiences than their own, the Confrérie responded by adding comic scenes and burlesques to their religious mysteries. Eventually this mix of the sacred and the profane came to be regarded by some as sacrilegious.

Source: Hôtel de Bourgogne (theatre) – Wikipedia

Décor simultané (French theatre)

Le décor simultané1 est un type de décor hérité des mystères du théâtre médiéval et employé dans le théâtre baroque du début du XVIIe siècle pour représenter sur la même scène les différents lieux de l’action théâtrale au moyen de compartiments. Pour signifier un changement de scène, les acteurs changeaient de compartiment.

Source: Décor simultané — Wikipédia

Pantalone (Commedia dell’arte)

The role of Pantalone is usually spoken entirely in the Venetian dialect.[9] The character of Pantalone is entirely based on currency and ego, for he has the highest regard for his intelligence, “but at every step he becomes the butt for every conceivable kind of trick”.[10] With little else to occupy his thoughts after a life as a tradesman or merchant, Pantalone is the metaphorical representation of money in the commedia world.

Source: Pantalone – Wikipedia

Miles Gloriosus (Roman theatre)

Miles Gloriosus (literally, “braggart-soldier”, in Latin) is a stock character of a boastful soldier from the comic theatre of ancient Rome, and variations on this character have appeared in drama and fiction ever since.[2] The character derives from the alazṓn or “braggart” of the Greek Old Comedy (e.g. Aristophanes).

Source: Alazon – Wikipedia

Tabarin (French theatre)

A contemporary woodcut shows Tabarin in the dress of a clown, but with a gallant moustache and pointed beard, carrying a wooden sword, like his distant puppet descendant Mr. Punch, — which would trip him up— and wearing a soft grey felt hat capable of assuming countless amusing shapes in his deft fingers. Tabarin from French tabard denotes a short cloak of the kind the commedia dell’arte figure Scaramouche wears.

Source: Tabarin – Wikipedia

What is a brane?

Venetian Carnival Masks

Masks have always been an important feature of the Venetian carnival. Traditionally people were allowed to wear them between the festival of Santo Stefano (St. Stephen’s Day, December 26) and the end of the carnival season at midnight of Shrove Tuesday. As masks were also allowed on Ascension and from October 5 to Christmas, people could spend a large portion of the year in disguise. Maskmakers (mascherari) enjoyed a special position in society, with their own laws and their own guild.

Source: Carnival of Venice – Wikipedia

Hundred and Four (Carthaginian Judges)

…a Carthaginian tribunal of judges. They were created early in Carthage’s history, and are described in Aristotle’s Politics (4th century BC) as “the highest constitutional authority.” The Hundred and Four were in charge of judging generals and the military, who exercised a great deal of independence from the government in Carthage. The Hundred and Four were intended to provide a check to ensure the military served the needs of the senate and the people. However, by the time of Hannibal Barca, and his stint as Suffet (early 2nd century BC), the 104 had acquired tyrannical power.

Source: Hundred and Four – Wikipedia

Carthaginian Control of Tin Trade

Carthaginian trade-relations with the Iberians, and the naval might that enforced Carthage’s monopoly on this trade and the Atlantic tin trade,[110] made it the sole significant broker of tin and maker of bronze in its day. Maintaining this monopoly was one of the major sources of power and prosperity for Carthage; Carthaginian merchants strove to keep the location of the tin mines secret.[111] In addition to its role as the sole significant distributor of tin, Carthage’s central location in the Mediterranean and control of the waters between Sicily and Tunisia allowed it to control the eastern peoples’ supply of tin.

Source: Ancient Carthage – Wikipedia

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