Tim Boucher

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Cantabria (Spanish geography & myth)

Cantabria has archaeological sites from the Upper Paleolithic period, although the first signs of human occupation date from the Lower Paleolithic. The most significant site for cave paintings is that in the cave of Altamira, dating from about 37,000 BC[8] and declared, along with nine other Cantabrian caves, as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. […]

There is a heavy presence of fabulous beings of giant proportions and Cyclopean features (the ojáncanos), fantastic animals (culebres, caballucos del diablu (lit. horses of the devil, damselflies), ramidrejus, etc.), færies (anjanas, ijanas of Aras), duendes (nuberos, ventolines, trentis, trasgus, trastolillos, musgosu, tentiruju), anthropomorphic characters (the sirenuca (little mermaid), the fish-man, the cuegle, the wife-bear of Andara, the guajona), etc.

Source: Cantabria – Wikipedia

Sentimental ballad (Musicology)

Sentimental ballads had their origins in the early Tin Pan Alley music industry of the later 19th century.[5] Initially known as “tear-jerkers” or “drawing-room ballads”, they were generally sentimental, narrative, strophic songs published separately or as part of an opera, descendants perhaps of broadside ballads. As new genres of music began to emerge in the early 20th century, their popularity faded, but the association with sentimentality led to the term ballad being used for a slow love song from the 1950s onwards.[6]

Source: Sentimental ballad – Wikipedia

Pseudo-Berossus (Medieval literature & history)

In 1498, Annius of Viterbo (an official of Pope Alexander VI) claimed to have discovered lost books of Berossus. These were in fact an elaborate forgery. However, they greatly[12] influenced Renaissance ways of thinking about population and migration, because Annius provided a list of kings from Japhet onwards, filling a historical gap following the Biblical account of the Flood. Annius also introduced characters from classical sources into the biblical framework, publishing his account as Commentaria super opera diversorum auctorum de antiquitatibus loquentium (Commentaries on the Works of Various Authors Discussing Antiquity). One consequence was sophisticated theories about Celtic races with Druid priests in Western Europe.[13]

Source: Berossus – Wikipedia

Annio da Viterbo (Medieval scholastic history)

Annius of Viterbo (Latin: Joannes Annius Viterb(i)ensis; c. 1432 – 13 November 1502) was an Italian Dominican friar, scholar, and historian, born Giovanni Nanni (Nenni) in Viterbo. He is now remembered for his fabrications. […]

In perhaps his most elaborate pseudo-archeological charade, in the autumn of 1493 he undertook a well-publicized dig at Viterbo, during which marble statues of some of the most dramatic of the mythical figures associated with the city’s legendarium appeared to be unearthed; they had all been “salted” [ed., deposited] in the site beforehand.[3] […]

He was notorious for his text depicting the history and topography of ancient Rome from the “most ancient” authors. His Auctores vetustissimi printed at Rome, 1498, was an anthology of seventeen purportedly classical texts, all of which he had written himself, with which he embarks in the gigantic attempt to write a universal history of the post-diluvian West civilization, where the Etruscan people and the town of Viterbo/Etruria, custodian of the original knowledge of divine nature, takes on the leading role in the march of Man towards the future. Annio’s map of Rome as founded by Romulus is a loose interpretation of one of his own forgeries. It prominently features Vicus Tuscus, the home of the Etruscans, whom Annio and his fellow Viterbans claimed as their ancestors. Part of the forgeries were motivated by a desire to prove that Viterbo was the site of the Etruscan Fanum Voltumnae. […]

The content was falsely attributed to Berosus, Fabius Pictor, Cato, Manetho and others.

Source: Annio da Viterbo – Wikipedia

Bisentina Island (Etruscan myth & history)

Within Lake Bolsena, the Bisentina island (commune of Capodimonte) is also regarded as a sacred isle of the Etruscans, possible site for the Fanum, and gate to the underground world of Agharti. A sanctuary located on an island not situated at the sea would have been accessible to priests and kings of the 12 cities (with their closest entourages), their protection being granted during the religious and political meetings by a handful of armed men. An Italian television program Voyager (1 October 2003) supported this hypothesis, suggesting for the Etruscans a parallelism to the Incas populations, who had also chosen one of Lake Titicaca’s islands as their omphalos.

Indeed, not only the Incas but, for the same reasons, various peoples have decided to erect their most eminent sanctuary on sacred islands: the Egyptians at Philae; the Greeks at Delos; the Germans at Helgoland in the North Sea and on the island of the goddess Nerthus, in the Baltic; the Celts at Gavrinis, near to the Breton coast in France, at Iona in Scotland, etc. This hypothesis finds a type of confirmation in the poem the Theogony, by the Greek oral poet Hesiod (8th-7th century BC) : “They ruled over the famous Tyrenians, very far off in a recess of the holy islands”.

Source: Fanum Voltumnae – Wikipedia

Fanum Voltumnae (Etruscan history & religion)

The Fanum Voltumnae (‘shrine of Voltumna’) was the chief sanctuary of the Etruscans; fanum means a sacred place, a much broader notion than a single temple.[1] Numerous sources refer to a league of the “Twelve Peoples” (lucumonies) of Etruria, formed for religious purposes but evidently having some political functions. The Etruscan league of twelve city-states met annually at the Fanum, located in a place chosen as omphalos (sacred navel), the geographical and spiritual centre of the whole Etruscan nation. Each spring political and religious leaders from the cities would meet to discuss military campaigns and civic affairs and pray to their common gods. Chief amongst these was Voltumna (or Veltha), possibly state god of the Etruria.

Roman historian Titus Livius mentioned the Fanum Voltumnae five times in his works[2] and indicated “…apud Volsinios…” as the place where the shrine was located. Modern historians have been looking for the Fanum since at least the 15th century but the exact location of the shrine is still unknown

Source: Fanum Voltumnae – Wikipedia

Voltumna (Etruscan mythology)

In Etruscan mythology, Voltumna or Veltha[1] was the chthonic (relating to or inhabiting the underworld)[2] deity, who became[3] the supreme god of the Etruscan pantheon, the deus Etruriae princeps, according to Varro.[4] Voltumna’s cult was centered in Volsini (modern-day Orvieto) a polis of the Etruscan Civilization of central Italy.

The bond of the twelve Etruscan populi was renewed annually at the sacred grove of Fanum Voltumnae, the sanctuary of Voltumnus sited near Volsinii (present day Bolsena), which was mentioned by Livy.[5] At the Fanum Voltumnae ludi were held, the precise nature of which, whether athletic or artistic, is unknown.

Source: Voltumna – Wikipedia

John Frederick Rowbotham (Wikipedia, Auto-Translated)

John Frederick Rowbotham (born April 18, 1854 in Bradford , † October 20, 1925 in Sutton Cheney , County Leicestershire ) was a British clergyman, composer and music historian .


Rowbotham was born the son of a pastor from Edinburgh . After attending school in Rossall (County Lancashire ) and the Academy of Edinburgh, he studied at the University of Oxford classical philology and theology . He graduated with honors. He then studied music in Oxford, Berlin – where he attended the Stern Conservatory for three years – Paris , Dresden and Vienna.

He then entered the service of the Church of England . From 1892 Rowbotham was vicar in Ratley , from 1895 in Huntly . From 1896 he was chaplain in Budapest . The following year, he returned to England to become Vicar in Abbotsley , before moving to Sutton Cheney in 1916, where he spent the rest of his life.

After graduation Rowbotham decided to write a comprehensive work in the history of music . Despite its volume of more than 1,500 pages in the first three volumes published, it reached only from the beginning to the 11th century.

Rowbotham left a mass for double choir and orchestra as well as numerous vocal works . He also wrote numerous journal articles and contributions to the Chambers Encyclopaedia . He was one of the first musicologists to systematically study the music of non-European ethnic groups. He thus promoted the emergence of music ethnology . Although after him numerous writings on musical archeology , the music of antiquity and the origin of musical instruments , u. a. By Richard Wallaschek , pursuing other theories, Rowbotham’s publications to the present day form the foundation of the older history of music.

Translation Source: Google Translate

* German-language Wikipedia text original

John Frederick Rowbotham (1859-1925). Ayres, ed. 1917. The Reader’s Dictionary of Anthuor

John Frederick Rowbotham (1859–1925)

Rowbotham, John Frederick. A Scotch miscellaneous writer; born April 18, 1859; died in 1925. He resided in Germany several years, collecting material for his elaborate ‘History of Music’ (1885); after which he turned his attention to the study of mediæval poetry, and published ‘The Death of Roland: An Epic Poem’ (1887); ‘The Human Epic’ (1902); ‘The Epic of London’ (1908); ‘The Epic of God and the Devil’ (1911); ‘The Epic of the Empire’ (1914).

Source: John Frederick Rowbotham (1859-1925). Ayres, ed. 1917. The Reader’s Dictionary of Authors

Prophetiae Merlini (Geoffrey of Monmouth, British myth & history)

The work contains a number of prophecies attributed to Merlin, the wizard of legend, whose mythical life is often regarded as created by Geoffrey himself although Geoffrey himself claims to have based on older Brittonic traditions some of which may have been oral but now lost. The Prophetiae preceded Geoffrey’s larger Historia Regum Britanniæ of c. 1136, and was mostly incorporated in it, in Book VII;[4] the prophecies, however, were influential and widely circulated in their own right. […]

When Geoffrey’s Historia was largely translated by Wace into the Roman de Brut, he omitted the material on Merlin’s prophecies, though he does profess knowledge of them.[7] […]

This work not only launched Merlin as a character of Arthurian legend: it also created a distinctively English style of political prophecy, called Galfridian, in which animals represent particular political figures.[9] Political prophecy in this style remained popular for at least 400 years. It was subversive, and the figure of the prophetic Merlin was strongly identified with it.[10] […]

In this work Geoffrey drew from the established bardic tradition of prophetic writing attributed to the sage Myrddin, though his knowledge of Myrddin’s story at this stage in his career appears to have been slight.[11] […]

Geoffrey apparently introduced the spelling “Merlin”, derived from the Welsh “Myrddin”. The Welsh scholar Rachel Bromwich observed that this “change from medial dd > l is curious. It was explained by Gaston Paris as caused by the undesirable associations of the French word merde”.[13]

Source: Prophetiae Merlini – Wikipedia

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