Category: Reference (Page 2 of 5)
Selected excerpts to follow:
the development of Artificial Intelligence, which happened no earlier than 1553 and no later than 1844.
I’m talking about the very old, very slow AIs we call corporations, of course.
In the late 18th century, Stewart Kyd, the author of the first treatise on corporate law in English, defined a corporation as:
a collection of many individuals united into one body, under a special denomination, having perpetual succession under an artificial form, and vested, by policy of the law, with the capacity of acting, in several respects, as an individual, particularly of taking and granting property, of contracting obligations, and of suing and being sued, of enjoying privileges and immunities in common, and of exercising a variety of political rights, more or less extensive, according to the design of its institution, or the powers conferred upon it, either at the time of its creation, or at any subsequent period of its existence.
—A Treatise on the Law of Corporations, Stewart Kyd (1793-1794)
Here’s the thing about corporations: they’re clearly artificial, but legally they’re people. They have goals, and operate in pursuit of these goals. And they have a natural life cycle. In the 1950s, a typical US corporation on the S&P 500 index had a lifespan of 60 years, but today it’s down to less than 20 years. […]
Each human is only retained so long as they can perform their assigned tasks, and can be replaced with another human, much as the cells in our own bodies are functionally interchangeable […]
We humans are living in a world shaped by the desires and needs of AIs, forced to live on their terms, and we are taught that we are valuable only insofar as we contribute to the rule of the machines.
This will probably come sooner:
The smart money says that by 2027 you won’t be able to believe anything you see in video unless there are cryptographic signatures on it, linking it back to the device that shot the raw feed …
From a Salon October 2014 article on why so many of the world’s oldest corporations are Japanese:
Even though primogeniture faded with the 20th century, owners still often pass their companies on to a single heir—although keeping business in the family is often aided and abetted by adult adoption, in which the company head legally adopts the right person to run his firm and then passes it on. (These adult adoptions are sometimes facilitated by a marriage between the heir presumptive and the owner’s daughter.) In 2011, more than 90 percent of the 81,000 individuals adopted in Japan were adults. Firms run by adopted heirs, research shows, outperform those run by “blood” heirs—and both adopted and blood heirs outperform nonfamily firms.
According to Wikipedia List of oldest corporations, the world’s oldest corporation is: 578 (year) Kongō Gumi, in Japan, in Construction business.
The Wikipedia page for that business adds:
Kongō Gumi Co., Ltd. (株式会社金剛組 Kabushiki Gaisha Kongō Gumi) is a Japanese construction company which was the world’s oldest continuously ongoing independent company, operating for over 1,400 years until it was absorbed as a subsidiary of Takamatsu in 2006.
Related Salon.com link: Why are so many of the world’s oldest companies from Japan?
One embodiment provides a method including identifying malicious information spreading in an information-exchange network; classifying at least one topic of the malicious information; determining a potential sub-network for future spread of the malicious information based on the at least one topic classified; and attenuating a potential future spread of the malicious information via at least one of: automatically propagating a countervailing message to the potential sub-network; and prompting manual intervention for propagating a countervailing message to the potential sub-network. Other variants and embodiments are broadly contemplated herein.
Quote from Medium article on same topic:
“Their [Alibaba] Taobao marketplace, which allows even micro businesses to reach customers across China, generated what we call now “Taobao Villages.”
Taobao Villages are precarious villages where the main activity is manufacturing products to be sold on the website. It has now become key to the development of China’s lower class and strengthened the relationship with the government.