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Biological dispersal (Ecology)

Dispersal is also used to describe the movement of propagules such as seeds and spores. Technically, dispersal is defined as any movement that has the potential to lead to gene flow.[1] The act of dispersal involves three phases: departure, transfer, settlement and there are different fitness costs and benefits associated with each of these phases.[2] Through simply moving from one habitat patch to another, the dispersal of an individual has consequences not only for individual fitness, but also for population dynamics, population genetics, and species distribution.[3][4][5] Understanding dispersal and the consequences both for evolutionary strategies at a species level, and for processes at an ecosystem level, requires understanding on the type of dispersal, the dispersal range of a given species, and the dispersal mechanisms involved.

Source: Biological dispersal – Wikipedia

Origin of Written Quran (Islam, Oral tradition)

The written Quran is said to have been created in part from what had been memorized by Muhammad’s companions, and the decision to create a standard written work is said to have come after the death in battle (Yamama) of a large number of Muslims who had memorized the work.[58]

For centuries copies of the Qurans/mushaf were written by hand, not printed, and their scarcity and expense made reciting the Quran from memory, not reading, the predominant mode of teaching it to others.[60] To this day the Quran is memorized by millions and its recitation can be heard throughout the Muslim world from recordings and mosque loudspeakers (during Ramadan).[60][61] Muslims state that some who teach memorization/recitation of the Quran constitute the end of an “un-broken chain” whose original teacher was Muhammad himself.[60]

Source: Oral tradition – Wikipedia

Isnad: Chain of Transmission (Islam, Hadith studies)

An elaborate system was developed by scientists of hadith to determine the authenticity of traditions based on “two premises”:

  1. that the authenticity of a hadith report is “best measured by the reliability of the transmitters” (rāwī pl. ruwāt) of the report;
  2. and that this reliability is best measured by “carefully scrutinizing” the “individual transmitters” of the hadith and “the continuity of their chains of transmission”.[16]

A basic element of hadith studies consist of a careful examination of the chain of transmission (sanad سند, also isnād اسناد, or silsila سِلْسِلَة), relaying each hadith from the Prophet to the person who compiles the hadith. The isnād and the commentary are distinct from the matn (متن), which is the main body, or text, of the hadith,[17][18] These two terms are the primary components of every hadith.

Source: Hadith studies – Wikipedia

Traditional ecological knowledge

Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) describes indigenous and other forms of traditional knowledge regarding the sustainability of local resources. As a field of study in anthropology, TEK refers to “a cumulative body of knowledge, belief, and practice, evolving by accumulation of TEK and handed down through generations through traditional songs, stories and beliefs. It is concerned with the relationship of living beings (including human) with their traditional groups and with their environment.”[1]

Source: Traditional ecological knowledge – Wikipedia

Akhenaten’s Iconoclasm (Ancient Egypt, religion)

In the Bronze Age, the most significant episode of iconoclasm occurred in Egypt during the Amarna Period, when Akhenaten, based in his new capital of Akhetaten, instituted a significant shift in Egyptian artistic styles alongside a campaign of intolerance towards the traditional gods and a new emphasis on a state monolatristic tradition focused on the god Aten, the Sun disk— many temples and monuments were destroyed as a result:

“In rebellion against the old religion and the powerful priests of Amun, Akhenaten ordered the eradication of all of Egypt’s traditional gods. He sent royal officials to chisel out and destroy every reference to Amun and the names of other deities on tombs, temple walls, and cartouches to instill in the people that the Aten was the one true god.[7]”

Public references to Akhenaten were destroyed soon after his death.

Source: Iconoclasm – Wikipedia

Store and forward (Telecommunications systems, technology)

Store and forward is a telecommunications technique in which information is sent to an intermediate station where it is kept and sent at a later time to the final destination or to another intermediate station. The intermediate station, or node in a networking context, verifies the integrity of the message before forwarding it. In general, this technique is used in networks with intermittent connectivity, especially in the wilderness or environments requiring high mobility. It may also be preferable in situations when there are long delays in transmission and variable and high error rates, or if a direct, end-to-end connection is not available.

Source: Store and forward – Wikipedia

Eocene Layer of Mysterious Origin (ELMO) – Geology

Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM-2), also called H-1 or the Elmo (Eocene Layer of Mysterious Origin) event, was a transient period of global warming that occurred approximately 53.7 million years ago (Ma).[1][2][3][4] It appears to be the second major hyperthermal that punctuated the long-term warming trend from the Late Paleocene through the early Eocene (58 to 50 Ma).[5]

Source: Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 – Wikipedia

Did the Quatrians live before the Quaternary period?

When it comes to direct evidence of an industrial civilization—things like cities, factories, and roads—the geologic record doesn’t go back past what’s called the Quaternary period 2.6 million years ago. For example, the oldest large-scale stretch of ancient surface lies in the Negev Desert. It’s “just” 1.8 million years old—older surfaces are mostly visible in cross section via something like a cliff face or rock cuts. Go back much further than the Quaternary, and everything has been turned over and crushed to dust. […]

Perhaps, for example, some early mammal rose briefly to civilization building during the Paleocene epoch, about 60 million years ago. There are fossils, of course. But the fraction of life that gets fossilized is always minuscule and varies a lot depending on time and habitat. It would be easy, therefore, to miss an industrial civilization that lasted only 100,000 years—which would be 500 times longer than our industrial civilization has made it so far.

Source: Was There a Civilization on Earth Before Humans? – The Atlantic

Did the Nazis form a breakway Antarctic / Mars colony? (Conspiracy theory)

We also have the idea of Space Nazis which was proposed by insiders such as William Tompkins who worked for the US Navy during World War II, and said he was part of a Navy espionage program that monitored the Nazi’s flying saucer program. Tompkins asserted that the Germans successfully established a breakaway colony in Antarctica which became a space power over the succeeding decades.

According to Tompkins and other insiders, the Germans have established colonies on Mars, Ceres, and elsewhere in Deep Space, and have developed some of the most advanced aerospace technologies known to humanity. Given their non-state status, the breakaway German Antarctic/Mars colonies may also be considered a modern form of space pirates.

Finally, we have the idea of a transnational corporate network that has developed its own space fleet that operates outside of any national or global institutional authority. According to insiders such as Corey Goode, the Conglomerate has the most advanced spacecraft in existence as a result of their long-time cooperation with the breakaway German group in Antarctica.

Source: The Black Vault (forum thread)

Rodinia (Prehistoric super-continent)

Rodinia (from the Russian родить, rodit, meaning “to beget, to give birth”,[2] or родина, rodina, meaning “motherland, birthplace”)[3][4] was a Neoproterozoic supercontinent that assembled 1.1–0.9 billion years ago and broke up 750–633 million years ago.[5] Valentine & Moores 1970 were probably the first to recognise a Precambrian supercontinent, which they named ‘Pangaea I’.[5] It was renamed ‘Rodinia’ by McMenamin & McMenamin 1990 who also were the first to produce a reconstruction and propose a temporal framework for the supercontinent.[6]

Source: Rodinia – Wikipedia

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