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Calypso (Greek mythology, Homer, Odyssey)

In Homer’s Odyssey, Calypso attempts to keep the fabled Greek hero Odysseus on her island to make him her immortal husband. According to Homer, Calypso kept Odysseus prisoner at Ogygia for seven years.[6] Calypso enchants Odysseus with her singing as she moves to and from, weaving on her loom with a golden shuttle. […]

The story of Odysseus and Calypso has some close resemblances to the interactions between Gilgamesh and Siduri in the Epic of Gilgamesh in that “the lone female plies the inconsolable hero-wanderer with drink and sends him off to a place beyond the sea reserved for a special class of honoured people” and “to prepare for the voyage he has to cut down and trim timbers.”[10]

Source: Calypso (mythology) – Wikipedia

When the Zalthyrmians came to Quastria

Quatrian legend says that when the Quatrians descended the Web of Matarax from the terror and turmoil of the Shape Wars, they rejoiced, stepping onto the new land out of the mists. And in their rejoicing, they burst out into song, a classic Triangulon air which made present in their minds all they had left behind and opened space in their hearts for all that might come, in the fullness of time. From far off, the Zalthyrmians are said to have heard their marvelous singing, and came to watch these new people,

Source: Zalthyrmians – Quatria – Medium

Cryptography definition

cryptography (n.) 1650s, “art of writing in secret characters,” from French cryptographie or directly from Modern Latin cryptographia, from Greek kryptos “hidden” (see crypt) + graphia (see -graphy). Related: Cryptographic; cryptographer.

Source: cryptography | Origin and meaning of cryptography by Online Etymology Dictionary

Matter wave (Quantum physics, Science)

All matter exhibits wave-like behavior. For example, a beam of electrons can be diffracted just like a beam of light or a water wave. In most cases, however, the wavelength is too small to have a practical impact on day-to-day activities. Hence in our day-to-day lives with objects the size of tennis balls and people, matter waves are not relevant.

The concept that matter behaves like a wave was proposed by Louis de Broglie (/dəˈbrɔɪ/) in 1924.

Source: Matter wave – Wikipedia

Biological dispersal (Ecology)

Dispersal is also used to describe the movement of propagules such as seeds and spores. Technically, dispersal is defined as any movement that has the potential to lead to gene flow.[1] The act of dispersal involves three phases: departure, transfer, settlement and there are different fitness costs and benefits associated with each of these phases.[2] Through simply moving from one habitat patch to another, the dispersal of an individual has consequences not only for individual fitness, but also for population dynamics, population genetics, and species distribution.[3][4][5] Understanding dispersal and the consequences both for evolutionary strategies at a species level, and for processes at an ecosystem level, requires understanding on the type of dispersal, the dispersal range of a given species, and the dispersal mechanisms involved.

Source: Biological dispersal – Wikipedia

Origin of Written Quran (Islam, Oral tradition)

The written Quran is said to have been created in part from what had been memorized by Muhammad’s companions, and the decision to create a standard written work is said to have come after the death in battle (Yamama) of a large number of Muslims who had memorized the work.[58]

For centuries copies of the Qurans/mushaf were written by hand, not printed, and their scarcity and expense made reciting the Quran from memory, not reading, the predominant mode of teaching it to others.[60] To this day the Quran is memorized by millions and its recitation can be heard throughout the Muslim world from recordings and mosque loudspeakers (during Ramadan).[60][61] Muslims state that some who teach memorization/recitation of the Quran constitute the end of an “un-broken chain” whose original teacher was Muhammad himself.[60]

Source: Oral tradition – Wikipedia

Isnad: Chain of Transmission (Islam, Hadith studies)

An elaborate system was developed by scientists of hadith to determine the authenticity of traditions based on “two premises”:

  1. that the authenticity of a hadith report is “best measured by the reliability of the transmitters” (rāwī pl. ruwāt) of the report;
  2. and that this reliability is best measured by “carefully scrutinizing” the “individual transmitters” of the hadith and “the continuity of their chains of transmission”.[16]

A basic element of hadith studies consist of a careful examination of the chain of transmission (sanad سند, also isnād اسناد, or silsila سِلْسِلَة), relaying each hadith from the Prophet to the person who compiles the hadith. The isnād and the commentary are distinct from the matn (متن), which is the main body, or text, of the hadith,[17][18] These two terms are the primary components of every hadith.

Source: Hadith studies – Wikipedia

Traditional ecological knowledge

Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) describes indigenous and other forms of traditional knowledge regarding the sustainability of local resources. As a field of study in anthropology, TEK refers to “a cumulative body of knowledge, belief, and practice, evolving by accumulation of TEK and handed down through generations through traditional songs, stories and beliefs. It is concerned with the relationship of living beings (including human) with their traditional groups and with their environment.”[1]

Source: Traditional ecological knowledge – Wikipedia

Akhenaten’s Iconoclasm (Ancient Egypt, religion)

In the Bronze Age, the most significant episode of iconoclasm occurred in Egypt during the Amarna Period, when Akhenaten, based in his new capital of Akhetaten, instituted a significant shift in Egyptian artistic styles alongside a campaign of intolerance towards the traditional gods and a new emphasis on a state monolatristic tradition focused on the god Aten, the Sun disk— many temples and monuments were destroyed as a result:

“In rebellion against the old religion and the powerful priests of Amun, Akhenaten ordered the eradication of all of Egypt’s traditional gods. He sent royal officials to chisel out and destroy every reference to Amun and the names of other deities on tombs, temple walls, and cartouches to instill in the people that the Aten was the one true god.[7]”

Public references to Akhenaten were destroyed soon after his death.

Source: Iconoclasm – Wikipedia

Store and forward (Telecommunications systems, technology)

Store and forward is a telecommunications technique in which information is sent to an intermediate station where it is kept and sent at a later time to the final destination or to another intermediate station. The intermediate station, or node in a networking context, verifies the integrity of the message before forwarding it. In general, this technique is used in networks with intermittent connectivity, especially in the wilderness or environments requiring high mobility. It may also be preferable in situations when there are long delays in transmission and variable and high error rates, or if a direct, end-to-end connection is not available.

Source: Store and forward – Wikipedia

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