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Annio da Viterbo (Medieval scholastic history)

Annius of Viterbo (Latin: Joannes Annius Viterb(i)ensis; c. 1432 – 13 November 1502) was an Italian Dominican friar, scholar, and historian, born Giovanni Nanni (Nenni) in Viterbo. He is now remembered for his fabrications. […]

In perhaps his most elaborate pseudo-archeological charade, in the autumn of 1493 he undertook a well-publicized dig at Viterbo, during which marble statues of some of the most dramatic of the mythical figures associated with the city’s legendarium appeared to be unearthed; they had all been “salted” [ed., deposited] in the site beforehand.[3] […]

He was notorious for his text depicting the history and topography of ancient Rome from the “most ancient” authors. His Auctores vetustissimi printed at Rome, 1498, was an anthology of seventeen purportedly classical texts, all of which he had written himself, with which he embarks in the gigantic attempt to write a universal history of the post-diluvian West civilization, where the Etruscan people and the town of Viterbo/Etruria, custodian of the original knowledge of divine nature, takes on the leading role in the march of Man towards the future. Annio’s map of Rome as founded by Romulus is a loose interpretation of one of his own forgeries. It prominently features Vicus Tuscus, the home of the Etruscans, whom Annio and his fellow Viterbans claimed as their ancestors. Part of the forgeries were motivated by a desire to prove that Viterbo was the site of the Etruscan Fanum Voltumnae. […]

The content was falsely attributed to Berosus, Fabius Pictor, Cato, Manetho and others.

Source: Annio da Viterbo – Wikipedia

Bisentina Island (Etruscan myth & history)

Within Lake Bolsena, the Bisentina island (commune of Capodimonte) is also regarded as a sacred isle of the Etruscans, possible site for the Fanum, and gate to the underground world of Agharti. A sanctuary located on an island not situated at the sea would have been accessible to priests and kings of the 12 cities (with their closest entourages), their protection being granted during the religious and political meetings by a handful of armed men. An Italian television program Voyager (1 October 2003) supported this hypothesis, suggesting for the Etruscans a parallelism to the Incas populations, who had also chosen one of Lake Titicaca’s islands as their omphalos.

Indeed, not only the Incas but, for the same reasons, various peoples have decided to erect their most eminent sanctuary on sacred islands: the Egyptians at Philae; the Greeks at Delos; the Germans at Helgoland in the North Sea and on the island of the goddess Nerthus, in the Baltic; the Celts at Gavrinis, near to the Breton coast in France, at Iona in Scotland, etc. This hypothesis finds a type of confirmation in the poem the Theogony, by the Greek oral poet Hesiod (8th-7th century BC) : “They ruled over the famous Tyrenians, very far off in a recess of the holy islands”.

Source: Fanum Voltumnae – Wikipedia

Fanum Voltumnae (Etruscan history & religion)

The Fanum Voltumnae (‘shrine of Voltumna’) was the chief sanctuary of the Etruscans; fanum means a sacred place, a much broader notion than a single temple.[1] Numerous sources refer to a league of the “Twelve Peoples” (lucumonies) of Etruria, formed for religious purposes but evidently having some political functions. The Etruscan league of twelve city-states met annually at the Fanum, located in a place chosen as omphalos (sacred navel), the geographical and spiritual centre of the whole Etruscan nation. Each spring political and religious leaders from the cities would meet to discuss military campaigns and civic affairs and pray to their common gods. Chief amongst these was Voltumna (or Veltha), possibly state god of the Etruria.

Roman historian Titus Livius mentioned the Fanum Voltumnae five times in his works[2] and indicated “…apud Volsinios…” as the place where the shrine was located. Modern historians have been looking for the Fanum since at least the 15th century but the exact location of the shrine is still unknown

Source: Fanum Voltumnae – Wikipedia

Voltumna (Etruscan mythology)

In Etruscan mythology, Voltumna or Veltha[1] was the chthonic (relating to or inhabiting the underworld)[2] deity, who became[3] the supreme god of the Etruscan pantheon, the deus Etruriae princeps, according to Varro.[4] Voltumna’s cult was centered in Volsini (modern-day Orvieto) a polis of the Etruscan Civilization of central Italy.

The bond of the twelve Etruscan populi was renewed annually at the sacred grove of Fanum Voltumnae, the sanctuary of Voltumnus sited near Volsinii (present day Bolsena), which was mentioned by Livy.[5] At the Fanum Voltumnae ludi were held, the precise nature of which, whether athletic or artistic, is unknown.

Source: Voltumna – Wikipedia

John Frederick Rowbotham (Wikipedia, Auto-Translated)

John Frederick Rowbotham (born April 18, 1854 in Bradford , † October 20, 1925 in Sutton Cheney , County Leicestershire ) was a British clergyman, composer and music historian .


Rowbotham was born the son of a pastor from Edinburgh . After attending school in Rossall (County Lancashire ) and the Academy of Edinburgh, he studied at the University of Oxford classical philology and theology . He graduated with honors. He then studied music in Oxford, Berlin – where he attended the Stern Conservatory for three years – Paris , Dresden and Vienna.

He then entered the service of the Church of England . From 1892 Rowbotham was vicar in Ratley , from 1895 in Huntly . From 1896 he was chaplain in Budapest . The following year, he returned to England to become Vicar in Abbotsley , before moving to Sutton Cheney in 1916, where he spent the rest of his life.

After graduation Rowbotham decided to write a comprehensive work in the history of music . Despite its volume of more than 1,500 pages in the first three volumes published, it reached only from the beginning to the 11th century.

Rowbotham left a mass for double choir and orchestra as well as numerous vocal works . He also wrote numerous journal articles and contributions to the Chambers Encyclopaedia . He was one of the first musicologists to systematically study the music of non-European ethnic groups. He thus promoted the emergence of music ethnology . Although after him numerous writings on musical archeology , the music of antiquity and the origin of musical instruments , u. a. By Richard Wallaschek , pursuing other theories, Rowbotham’s publications to the present day form the foundation of the older history of music.

Translation Source: Google Translate

* German-language Wikipedia text original

John Frederick Rowbotham (1859-1925). Ayres, ed. 1917. The Reader’s Dictionary of Anthuor

John Frederick Rowbotham (1859–1925)

Rowbotham, John Frederick. A Scotch miscellaneous writer; born April 18, 1859; died in 1925. He resided in Germany several years, collecting material for his elaborate ‘History of Music’ (1885); after which he turned his attention to the study of mediæval poetry, and published ‘The Death of Roland: An Epic Poem’ (1887); ‘The Human Epic’ (1902); ‘The Epic of London’ (1908); ‘The Epic of God and the Devil’ (1911); ‘The Epic of the Empire’ (1914).

Source: John Frederick Rowbotham (1859-1925). Ayres, ed. 1917. The Reader’s Dictionary of Authors

Prophetiae Merlini (Geoffrey of Monmouth, British myth & history)

The work contains a number of prophecies attributed to Merlin, the wizard of legend, whose mythical life is often regarded as created by Geoffrey himself although Geoffrey himself claims to have based on older Brittonic traditions some of which may have been oral but now lost. The Prophetiae preceded Geoffrey’s larger Historia Regum Britanniæ of c. 1136, and was mostly incorporated in it, in Book VII;[4] the prophecies, however, were influential and widely circulated in their own right. […]

When Geoffrey’s Historia was largely translated by Wace into the Roman de Brut, he omitted the material on Merlin’s prophecies, though he does profess knowledge of them.[7] […]

This work not only launched Merlin as a character of Arthurian legend: it also created a distinctively English style of political prophecy, called Galfridian, in which animals represent particular political figures.[9] Political prophecy in this style remained popular for at least 400 years. It was subversive, and the figure of the prophetic Merlin was strongly identified with it.[10] […]

In this work Geoffrey drew from the established bardic tradition of prophetic writing attributed to the sage Myrddin, though his knowledge of Myrddin’s story at this stage in his career appears to have been slight.[11] […]

Geoffrey apparently introduced the spelling “Merlin”, derived from the Welsh “Myrddin”. The Welsh scholar Rachel Bromwich observed that this “change from medial dd > l is curious. It was explained by Gaston Paris as caused by the undesirable associations of the French word merde”.[13]

Source: Prophetiae Merlini – Wikipedia

Aeolians (Greek history)

The Aeolians (/iːˈoʊliənz/; Greek: Αἰολεῖς) were one of the four major tribes in which Greeks divided themselves in the ancient period (along with the Achaeans, Dorians and Ionians). […]

Their name mythologically derives from Aeolus, the mythical ancestor of the Aeolic branch and son of Hellen, the mythical patriarch of the Greek nation. It actually comes from Greek aiolos meaning “quickly moving”.[1] The dialect of ancient Greek they spoke is referred to as Aeolic. […]

According to Herodotus, the Aeolians were previously called Pelasgians.[2]

Source: Aeolians – Wikipedia

Dardanians / Dardanoi (Trojans, Anatolian history)

The Dardanoi (Greek: Δάρδανοι; its anglicized modern terms being Dardanians or Dardans) in classical writings were either the same people as, or a people closely related to, the Trojans, an ancient people of the Troad, located in northwestern Anatolia. The Dardanoi derived their name from Dardanus, the mythical founder of Dardania, an ancient city in the Troad. Rule of the Troad was divided between Dardania and Troy. Homer makes a clear distinction between the Trojans and the Dardanoi.[1] […]

The Royal House of Troy was also divided into two branches, that of the Dardanoi, and that of the Trojans (their city being called Troy, or sometimes Ilion/Ilium). The House of the Dardanoi (its members being the Dardanids, Greek: Δαρδανίδαι; Latin: Dardanidae[2]) was older than the House of Troy, but Troy later became more powerful. Aeneas is referred to in Virgil’s Aeneid interchangeably as a Dardanian or as a Trojan, but strictly speaking, Aeneas was of the branch of the Dardanoi. Many rulers of Rome claimed descent from Aeneas and the Houses of Troy and Dardania.

Source: Dardanians (Trojan) – Wikipedia

The Lost Direction

Mergolech, who, along with Eradus, had voted against Murta’s proposed invasion of Quatria, immediately thereafter tried to amend the resolution to become an armed trade mission. The Lawspeaker reminded him that motions could only be amended prior to adoption, unless the councilors agreed to allow a vote. They did agree to allow a vote, with the initial support of Greppo, who had been on the prevailing side of the vote. But when the actual vote occurred, the measure was once again struck down in a 3-2 vote against modification, and so the fate of Quatria was sealed.

Observing Benda weeping openly, Mergolech stood up and reaffirmed his vow to protect Benda, Lualla and Sol as their rightful king. The matter did not require a motion or resolution, but the Lawspeaker nodded solemnly and said, “The Lawspeaker notes it. Let no lawful man oppose the right of kings.”

After a period of silence, Martis Ovnis spoke thus, “The Fourth and Fifth Kings have not had their full say, as have the others. May the Lawspeaker grant this under right of kings.”

“The Lawspeaker grants it,” he said.

“Whether by arms or by exchange, let us return then to this ancient land, and do justice by all under whatever conditions with which we are met. There remains, however, the matter of the spoils… It is proposed we divide the spoils and any lands lawfully taken under the rules of war equally amongst the Five Kingdoms.”

Martis Ovnis, who was very crafty, said this primarily because he knew that his small northern Kingdom of Edebia could not match the soldiery available to Kremel, or the ships of Cannaxus. And while his people might contribute less in the overall effort, he hoped he might still protect their gain to come.

To his surprise, Eradus said, “I second.” For he and his dear friend Benda, there was opening in their imaginations a devastation of an entire land and its people. He thought his even tinier kingdom claiming an equal stake in that future might help secure a one-fifth measure of justice. He deemed it better than potentially none at all.

The Lawspeaker held the matter of equity of spoils to a vote, and despite the inequalities in their relative forces, it passed unanimously for political reasons. Greppo, in particular, felt that this was the best manner to alleviate any potential division or disagreement amongst the Five Kingdoms as they moved forward together on this one path.

“If it please the Lawspeaker, the Fifth King demands now his allotted time,” proclaimed Eradus.

The Lawspeaker indicated he should proceed, and Eradus did so: “Upon finding upon the shores of Devera a bedraggled half-alive man alongside a strange foreign vessel, I dubbed this man without a name First Minstrel of the Realm of Devera. Since then we have faced many trials together, and his memory of his past and his identity have returned to him. While I recognize the right of his king to rule him, I also affirm his obligation as an officer of my court, to render me service, alongside the sable golek, King Machef, who I have also taken as valet.”

“The Lawspeaker recognizes it. Let no lawful man put asunder the right of kings,” said Outhne, the Lawspeaker.

“I cede the remainder of my time to Benda, if it be allowed.”

“The Lawspeaker allows it.”

Benda, eyes still wet with tears, said, “Ye gallant kings, you know not what you do. Never a more peaceful people have graced the Wide Lands than the people of Quatria, who spend their days dedicated to song, and against whom an irrational fear has been constructed out of illusions by a power-mad conjurer…”

“Hold thy tongue, demon!” cried out Murta, rising up in anger.

“The Lawspeaker absorbs any injury to honor, and prohibits further direct or indirect insult or slander.”

He added, as Outhne, the man, informally: “Sit down Murta. You have had your turn to speak, and your motion has won the day. Push not your luck.”

Red-faced, Murta sat down.

“Forgive me,” continued Benda, “for I love those people like my own. If I am to be a citizen of the place of my choosing, let it be there, though I shirk no obligation to others in so saying. It is a question of loyalty to where the heart truly dwells. When my men and I were lost in a storm-at-sea, those people took us in, and joined us intimately with their lives, loves, songs, and festivals. They know not hate, nor even can comprehend violence. Their only swords are dull pageant accessories. Their only war cries are the songs of their hearts which they lift day and night in joyful exultation.”

“I shall take you there if I must – though I truly do not know the way – but in exchange then I beseech you all in your power and majesty to do them no harm. Do them no violence. Welcome you they will with open arms, and the joy of long lost brothers, cousins, friends, and mothers. Let neither fear nor greed guide this mission, or it will bring about too your own ruin. I yield my time.”

“Though I am not bound by the rules of men,” spoke a voice then in the hearts of the assembled participants, “I request too my allotted time under the right of kings.” The councilors and Lawspeaker looked about, and realized that the mindspeaker was Machef.

“The Lawspeaker grants it,” he said aloud.

Machef spoke then, in their hearts thus, “It is true that Benda does not know the way, for I have seen into his heart, just as I have seen into each of yours. Let then the Wayteller speak, and let us embark at once upon this foolhardy quest. Though it will bring you not what you think, it will bring upon each what is owed after the purity of his heart. I yield my time.”

Greppo, stirred, spoke up, “What the mindspeaker says is true. The Way has not been forgotten by the long memory of the Citadel. It’s mystery is contained still in the Scroll of Omounna, whose vessel landed upon these shores so long ago, and which the Iabolex came down out of the mountains and cracked like an egg. The child born to her among our people was called Embatet, and he grew at a pace unmatched among our people. Each week for him was like a year, and he ate enough for ten men, and within a few months, he was a full grown man himself. He took then Scroll from his mother, and deciphering it, ruled under the signs of its wisdom, building first the original fortress, then the Citadel, and later City of Kremel.”

“A legend recorded in that scroll describes in occult terms the way back to the land of his mother, Kwetuoria, or as we know it today, Quatria. When the Four Ships people came, they came primarily seeking after Omounna, having realized in their hearts the wrong they had done by putting her out to sea. They came in our time many centuries later, though in their according to the arrow of time in that land, not very much time had passed all. Unknown to them, she and her son were long since dead, and many generations had passed. None among our people had ever attempted the return trip outlined by the scroll prior. And once the Four Ships people had come, there was no reason to try to get back to Quatria, for we entered a Golden Age here in Kremel under their influence.”

“After the tumult of their departure, we thought not to go to that land either. We sought only rather the settling of affairs to rights amongst the Five Kingdoms. Besides, according to the legend contained within the scroll, the Gate of Song would neither appear nor open for us without its key…”

“In which direction shall we sail then?” asked Mergolech. Though his people were not illustrious seafarers, they were hardy fishermen, and knew the waters all about Kremel, parts of Ner and far Ablem. “We know these waters, but know not this Gate of Song you speak of.”

“Simply put,” said Greppo, “we sail in the Lost Direction.”

“We Drynareans know only four directions,” said Eradus, “Though some would divide those each into two, for a total of eight. We know of no Lost Direction.”

“Our tales speak of it,” said Mergolech. “The name we use is Buorthus. It is said to lead to the sea-bridge, which connects the waters below to the waters above – the realm of the Sky Lords. Is Quatria then in the heavens above?”

“Nay,” said Benda. “It is a most real and earthly place. But I traversed there and back again using neither bridge nor gate, but only storm-at-sea.”

“The place is called Tetharys,” said Greppo, “Where the Gate of Song stands on open ocean. In the scrolls it is described as two enormous white pillars, and it is guarded by jealous storm gods, though it is said they will let the Righteous Keyholder pass and open the way for others.”

So it was decided then that after five days, they would depart in three of the largest ships in the small fleet of the Citadel, and sail into the Lost Direction, towards the Buorth, and whatever lay beyond. To counter-act the possible magical effects of the storms-at-sea which protected Tetharys and the Gate of Song, their ships would sail in a single column, one after the other, with chains linking one to the next. Wherever the ship containing Benda, the Keyholder, would be taken off to, they trusted in these stout chains to pull them along safely through as well.

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